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- Dextrocardia [dextro=on the right side]-the heart is reversed and in the right side of the chest (instead of the left). The lower tip of the heart also points to the right (instead of the left).
- (DORV) Double Outlet Right Ventricle [outlet=passage for exit, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] – both vessels (aorta & pulmonary artery) carrying blood away from the heart come out of the right ventricle. (Normally the aorta carries oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle and the pulmonary artery carries oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle).
- (AVSD) Unbalanced Atrioventricular Septal Defect [septum=wall between the chambers of the heart, atriums=top chambers of the heart, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] – holes in the inner walls of the heart allowing extra blood flow between the atriums and the ventricles. This lets too much blood flow to the lungs and overworks the heart.
- (PFO) Patent Foramen Ovale [patent=open, foramen=opening] – a hole between the two top chambers of the heart that is covered by a flap. A cough, sneeze, or strain can cause this flap to open-–letting blood flow where it shouldn’t.
- (1) Coarctation of the Aorta – [coarctation=narrowing] – a narrowing of the aorta. This decreases blood flow to the body and increases pressures in the heart.
- (2) Transposition of the Great Arteries [transposition=switch the order, great arteries=the aorta & the pulmonary artery] – the positions of the great vessels are switched so that the aorta (which carries oxygen-rich blood to the body) is closer to the oxygen-poor blood AND the pulmonary artery (which carries oxygen-poor blood to the lungs) is closer to the oxygen-rich blood. It is usually accompanied by a hole in the wall between the ventricles (ventricular septal defect or VSD).
- (3) Plumonary Vein Stenosis [stenosis=narrowing of a passage] – a narrowing in one or more of the blood vessels carrying oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the heart. This slows down the production of oxygen-rich blood and increases pressures in the lungs.
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