(See Normal Heart Image for comparison)
Click image to see download options from Flickr:
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS): the left side of the heart is underdeveloped–including the left ventricle, the aorta (which carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body), and the valves controling the bloodflow of the left ventrical (mitral valve, aortic valve). Excess pressure in the heart leads to an atrial septal defect and a patent ductus arteriosus.
- hypoplastic Aorta (AO) [hypo=under, plasia=formation or development] the main vessel carrying oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body is underdeveloped and too narrow.
- Aortic Valve Stenosis [aortic=the main artery leaving the heart, stenosis=narrowing of a passage ]–a narrowing of the aortic artery (which carries blood from the heart to every organ except the lungs) at or near the aortic valve.
- Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) [septum=wall between the chambers of the heart, atriums=top chambers of the heart] – holes in the inner walls of the heart allowing extra blood flow between the two upper chambers of the heart (atriums).
- Hypoplastic Left Ventricle [hypo=under, plasia=formation or development, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] The left ventricle is underdeveloped. It is too small. This means the heart will have to work harder and won’t last as long. Sometimes the valves entering or leaving the left ventricle are also too small. (Aortic Valve, Mitral Valve).
- Mitral Valve Stenosis (MS) the valve that controls blood flow between the right atrium and the left ventricle in this heart. (In a normal heart, the mitral valve is located between the left artery and the left ventricle.)
- large Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) [patent=open, ductus=duct, arteriosus=artery] – an extra passageway between the pulmonary artery (carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs) and the aorta (carrying oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body). The ductus arteriosus is open in a fetus. This allows extra bloodflow in the forming baby while it’s getting oxygen from Mom instead of its own lungs. The PDA normally closes around 10 days after birth.