(See Normal Heart Image for comparison)
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- Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) [septum=wall between the chambers of the heart, atriums=top chambers of the heart] – holes in the inner walls of the heart allowing extra blood flow between the two upper chambers of the heart (atriums).
- Aortic defects:
- severe Coarctation of the Aorta (coarc.) [coarctation=narrowing] – a narrowing of the aorta just after the aortic arch. This decreases blood flow to the body and increases pressures in the heart.
- Aortic Stenosis (a. stenosis) [aortic=the main artery leaving the heart, stenosis=narrowing of a passage ]– a narrowing of the aortic artery (which carries blood from the heart to every organ except the lungs).
- Subaortic Stenosis [aortic=the main artery leaving the heart, stenosis=narrowing of a passage, sub=below]– a narrow passageway abnormally formed below the aortic valve that limits the outflow from the left ventricle.
- Bicuspid Aortic Valve [aortic=the main artery leaving the heart, bi=two, cusps=the parts of a heart valve that can open and close] – a heart defect where 2 of the 3 cusps of the aortic valve are fused together. This lessens the amount of blood that can fit through the valve because the valve can’t open all the way.
- Hypoplastic Left Ventricle [hypo=under, plasia=formation or development, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] – The left ventricle is underdeveloped. It is too small. This means the heart will have to work harder and won’t last as long. Sometimes the valves entering or leaving the left ventricle are also too small. (Aortic Valve, Mitral Valve).
- Mitral Valve Stenosis (m) [stenosis=narrowing of a passage ] – the valve that controls blood flow between the left atrium and the left ventricle is too small.
- Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) [septum=wall between the chambers of the heart, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] – holes in the inner walls of the heart allowing extra blood flow between the two lower chambers of the heart (ventricles). This causes the oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood to mix before leaving the heart.