CoArc, Bicuspid AV, ASD, PDA, Pulmonary Insufficency
(See Normal Heart Image for comparison)
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- Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) [septum=wall between the chambers of the heart, atriums=top chambers of the heart] – holes in the inner walls of the heart allowing extra blood flow between the two upper chambers of the heart (atriums).
- Bicuspid Aortic Valve [aortic=the main artery leaving the heart, bi=two, cusps=the parts of a heart valve that can open and close] – a heart defect where 2 of the 3 cusps of the aortic valve are fused together. This lessens the amount of blood that can fit through the valve because the valve can’t open all the way.
- Coarctation of the Aorta (coarc.) [coarctation=narrowing] – a narrowing of the aorta just after the aortic arch. This decreases blood flow to the body and increases pressures in the heart.
- mild Left Ventricular Hypertrophy [ventricles=lower chambers of the heart,hyper=excessive, trophy=condition of growth] thickening of the ventricular walls because the heart is working too hard.
- Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) [patent=open, ductus=duct, arteriosus=artery] – an extra passageway between the pulmonary artery (carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs) and the aorta (carrying oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body). The ductus arteriosus is open in a fetus. This allows extra bloodflow in the forming baby while it’s getting oxygen from Mom instead of its own lungs. The PDA normally closes around 10 days after birth.
- Pulmonary Insufficiency (PI) [pulmonary=having to do with the lungs]- the pulmonary valve can’t close completely. This allows blood to flow back into the right ventricle from the pulmonary artery instead of all of it going to the lungs.