(See Normal Heart Image for comparison)
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- Hypoplastic Right Ventricle (RV) [hypo=under, plasia=formation or development, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] The right ventricle is under developed. It is too small. This means the heart will have to work harder and won’t last as long. Sometimes the valves entering or leaving the right ventricle are also too small. In the Holmes heart, the right ventricle is so small that the tricuspid valve empties into the left ventricle.
- Double Inlet Left Ventricle (DILV) [intlet=passage for entrance, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] – both valves (tricuspid & mitral) controlling blood flow out of the upper chambers of the heart lead into a single ventricle–the left ventricle. [In the Holmes Heart, the tricuspid valve controls the blood flowing out of the right atrium AND the mitral valve controls the blood flowing from the left atrium into the left ventricle just as it would in a normal heart. More commonly, DILV exists with mitral/tricuspid valves that are switched in position AND right-left ventricles that are switched in positions. But, in the Holmes heart, these are on the sides they would be on in a normal heart.]
- Pulmonary Stenosis [pulmonary=having to do with the lungs, stenosis=narrowing of a passage, ] – a narrowing of the pulmonary artery (which carries blood from the heart to the lungs) at or near the pulmonary valve.
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