DORV, malposition of the Great Arteries, interrupted IVC, common atrium, single ventricle
(See Normal Heart Image for comparison)
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- Common Atrioventricular (AV) Valve – The Tricuspid and Mitral valves attach to each other instead of the septal wall. Then you essentially have one combined valve (that doesn’t close all the way) instead of two valves that function properly. This creates a hole between the chambers of the heart. Blood from all the heart’s chambers mix together. Blood leaving the heart (heading to the body AND heading to the lungs) contain an unhealthy mix of both oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood.
- Common Atrium - [common=shared, atrium= upper chamber of the heart] the single atrium found in a form of three-chambered heart.
- Single Right Ventricle – [single=one, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] – having one ventricle instead of two–the right ventricle.
- nearly discontinuous Pulmonary Artery (ndPA) - [dis=not, pulmonary=having to do with the lungs] – a pulmonary artery that is disconnected from the main pulmonary trunk and arises from a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA).
- Double Outlet Right Ventricle (DORV) [outlet=passage for exit, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] – both vessels (aorta & pulmonary artery) carrying blood away from the heart come out of the right ventricle. (Normally the aorta carries oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle and the pulmonary artery carries oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle).
- Interrupted Inferior Vena Cava (i-IVC) [interrupted=a break, inferior=lower, vena=vein, cava=space] The main vein from the lower half of the body doesn’t lead into the heart as it should. Instead it follows a unique path where the oxygen-depleted blood ends up in the right atrium via another path.
- dextro-Malposition of the Great Arteries (d-MGA) [d or dextor=right,mal=abnormal, great arteries=the aorta & the pulmonary artery] – The aorta and pulmonary artery both arise from the correct ventricles but have an abnormal relation to each other. The aortic valve lies to the right (dextro, or d) of the pulmonary valve.
- Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) [patent=open, ductus=duct, arteriosus=artery] – an extra passageway between the pulmonary artery (carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs) and the aorta (carrying oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body). The ductus arteriosus is open in a fetus. This allows extra bloodflow in the forming baby while it’s getting oxygen from Mom instead of its own lungs. The PDA normally closes around 10 days after birth.
- no Septum - missing the wall that normally separates the chambers of the heart.
- cardiac Total Anomalous Pulmonary Vein Return (c-TAPVR) [cardiac=of the heart, anomalous=not normal, pulmonary=having to do with the lungs, vein=blood vessel, return=come back] – a structural defect where the pulmonary veins (which normally carry oxygen-rich blood from the lungs back to the left atrium of the heart) do not connect individually to the left atrium. Instead, the pulmonary veins connect to each other behind the heart and then connect to the atrium as one blood vessel. TAPVR often presents with pulmonary vein stenosis.
Also (not pictured):
Heterotaxy [hetero=different, taxy=forming]:abnormal position of the organs inside the body. Look here for more information: http://www.chop.edu/service/cardiac-center/heart-conditions/heterotaxy-syndrome.html
with Right Atrial Isomerism – refers to the arrangement of the organs in the body.
- Asplenia – no spleen
- Midline liver – the liver runs down the middle of the body instead of off to one side.)
- trilobed lungs - lungs have three lobs on each side instead of two.
(Click here for an image showing the different types of atrial isomerism associated with heterotaxy: http://www.pnas.org/content/108/7/2915/F1.expansion.html)