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- Aortic Atresia (aa) [aortic=the main artery leaving the heart, atresia=without openings] a complete blockage of the aorta (which carries blood from the heart to the lungs) caused by a missing or fused-shut aortic valve.
- Coarctation of the Aorta (CoA) – [coarctation=narrowing] – a narrowing of the aorta. This decreases blood flow to the body and increases pressures in the heart.
- Double Inlet Left Ventricle (DILV) [intlet=passage for entrance, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] – both valves (tricuspid & mitral) controlling blood flow out of the upper chambers of the heart lead into the left ventricle. The right ventricle is very small or missing. (Normally blood from the right atrium flows through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and blood from the left atrium flows through the mitral valve into the left ventricle).
- Mitral Valve Atresia (ma) [atresia=without openings] a complete blockage of the mitral valve (which normally controls the bloodflow from the left atrium to the left ventricle) caused by a missing or fused-shut mitral valve.
- Transposition of the Great Arteries with congenitally corrected ventricles (TGA) [transposition=switch the order, great arteries=the aorta & the pulmonary artery] – the pulmonary artery and aorta are normally situated BUT the ventricles (lower chambers of the heart) and attached valves (mitral and tricuspid valve) are switched–so the left ventricle is attached to both the pulmonary artery and the right atrium (via the mitral valve) while the right ventricle is attached to the aorta and the left artrium (via the tricuspid valve).
- Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) [septum=wall between the chambers of the heart, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] – holes in the inner walls of the heart allowing extra blood flow between the two lower chambers of the heart (ventricles). This causes the oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood to mix before leaving the heart.
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