- narrow OR hypoplastic Aortic Arch (AO) [hypo=under, plastic=developed] The section of the aorta that forms the arch is underdeveloped; small.
- displastic Aortic Valve Stenosis (as) [aortic=the main artery leaving the heart, stenosis=narrowing of a passage ] –a narrowing of the aortic artery (which carries blood from the heart to the body) at or near the aortic valve. The valve is thicker than it should be and doesn’t function as well as a normal aortic valve.
- long segment Coarctation of the Aorta (coarc) [coarctation=narrowing] – a narrowing of the aorta just after the aortic arch. This decreases blood flow to the body and increases pressures in the heart.
- Double Outlet Right Ventricle (DORV) [outlet=passage for exit, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] – both vessels (aorta & pulmonary artery) carrying blood away from the heart come out of the right ventricle. (Normally the aorta carries oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle and the pulmonary artery carries oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle).
- Hypoplastic Left Ventricle (HLV) [hypo=under, plasia=formation or development, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] The left ventricle is slightlyunderdeveloped. It is too small. This means the heart will have to work harder and won’t last as long. Sometimes the valves entering or leaving the left ventricle are also too small. (Aortic Valve, Mitral Valve).
- Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) [patent=open, ductus=duct, arteriosus=artery] an extra passageway between the pulmonary artery (carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs) and the aorta (carrying oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body). The ductus arteriosus is open in a fetus. This allows extra bloodflow in the forming baby while it’s getting oxygen from Mom instead of its own lungs. The PDA normally closes around 10 days after birth.
- levo-Transposition of the Great Arteries (l-TGA)[transposition=switch the order, great arteries=the aorta & the pulmonary artery] – the pulmonary artery and aorta are switched AND the ventricles (lower chambers of the heart) and attached valves (mitral and tricuspid valve) are switched–so the left ventricle is attached to both the aorta and the right atrium (via the mitral valve) while the right ventricle is attached to the pulmonary artery and the left artrium (via the tricuspid valve).
- Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) [septum=wall between the chambers of the heart, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] – holes in the inner walls of the heart allowing extra blood flow between the two lower chambers of the heart (ventricles). This causes the oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood to mix before leaving the heart.
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