78 – Tetralogy of Fallot, CACV, pa

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  • Complete Atrioventricular Canal defect (CAVC) – The Tricuspid and Mitral valves attach to each other instead of the septal wall. Then you essentially have one combined valve (that doesn
  • Pulmonary Atresia (pa) [pulmonary=having to do with the lungs, atresia=without openings] a complete blockage of the pulmonary artery (which carries blood from the heart to the lungs) caused by a missing or fused-shut pulmonary valve.
  • Tetralogy of Fallot is a combination of these four heart defects:
  1. Large Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) [septum=wall between the chambers of the heart, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] – holes in the inner walls of the heart allowing extra blood flow between the two lower chambers of the heart (ventricles). This causes the oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood to mix before leaving the heart.
  2. Enlarged Aorta (EA) that sits directly above the ventricular septal defect (VSD).  In a normal heart, the aorta carries oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the body.
  3. Pulmonary  Stenosis (ps) [pulmonary=having to do with the lungs, stenosis=narrowing of a passage] – a narrowing of the pulmonary artery (which carries blood from the heart to the lungs) at or near the pulmonary valve.
  4. Right-Ventricular Hypertrophy [ventricles=lower chambers of the heart,hyper=excessive, trophy=condition of growth] thickening of the right-ventricular walls because the heart is working too hard.
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