- Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) [patent=open, foramen=opening] a hole between the two top chambers of the heart that is covered by a flap. A cough, sneeze, or strain can cause this flap to open-–letting blood flow where it shouldn’t.
- Pulmonary Atresia (pa) [pulmonary=having to do with the lungs, atresia=without openings] a complete blockage of the pulmonary artery (which carries blood from the heart to the lungs) caused by a missing or fused-shut pulmonary valve.
- Tetralogy of Fallot is a combination of these four heart defects:
- Large Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) [septum=wall between the chambers of the heart, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] – holes in the inner walls of the heart allowing extra blood flow between the two lower chambers of the heart (ventricles). This causes the oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood to mix before leaving the heart.
- Enlarged Aorta (AO) that sits directly above the ventricular septal defect (VSD). In a normal heart, the aorta carries oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the body.
- Pulmonary Stenosis (ps) [pulmonary=having to do with the lungs, stenosis=narrowing of a passage, ] – a narrowing of the pulmonary artery (which carries blood from the heart to the lungs) at or near the pulmonary valve.
- Right-Ventricular Hypertrophy [ventricles=lower chambers of the heart,hyper=excessive, trophy=condition of growth] thickening of the right-ventricular walls because the heart is working too hard.
- left Pulmonary Artery Stenosis [pulmonary=having to do with the lungs, stenosis=narrowing of a passage] a narrowing of the left artery that carries oxygen-poor blood into the lungs.
- restrictive Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) [septum=wall between the chambers of the heart, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] multiple small holes in the inner wall of the heart between the two ventricles.
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