- Atrial Septal Defects (ASD) [septum=wall between the chambers of the heart, atria=top chambers of the heart] – holes in the inner walls of the heart allowing extra blood flow between the two upper chambers of the heart (atria).
- Double Outlet Right Ventricle (DORV) [outlet=passage for exit, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] – both vessels (aorta & pulmonary artery) carrying blood away from the heart come out of the right ventricle. (Normally the aorta carries oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle and the pulmonary artery carries oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle).
- Hypoplastic Left Ventricle (HLV) [hypo=under, plasia=formation or development, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] The left ventricle is underdeveloped. It is too small. This means the heart will have to work harder and won’t last as long. Sometimes the valves entering or leaving the left ventricle are also too small. (Aortic Valve, Mitral Valve).
- Mitral Valve Atresia (ma): [atresia=without ] a complete blockage of the mitral valve. The valve that controls blood flow between the right atrium and the left ventricle in this heart is missing or fused shut.
- Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) [septum=wall between the chambers of the heart, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] – holes in the inner walls of the heart allowing extra blood flow between the two lower chambers of the heart (ventricles). This causes the oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood to mix before leaving the heart.
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