- Aortic Valve Stenosis (as) [aortic=the main artery leaving the heart, stenosis=narrowing of a passage ] –a narrowing of the aortic artery (which carries blood from the heart to the body) at or near the aortic valve.
- Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) [septum=wall between the chambers of the heart, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] – holes in the inner walls of the heart allowing extra blood flow between the two lower chambers of the heart (ventricles). This causes the oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood to mix before leaving the heart.
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