- Atrial Septal Defects (ASD) [septum=wall between the chambers of the heart, atriums=top chambers of the heart] – holes in the inner walls of the heart allowing extra blood flow between the two upper chambers of the heart (atria).
- Double Inlet Left Ventricle (DILV) [intlet=passage for entrance, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] – both valves (tricuspid & mitral) controlling blood flow out of the upper chambers of the heart lead into a single ventricle.
- Hypoplastic Right Heart Syndrome (HRHS): the right side of the heart is underdeveloped–including the right ventricle, the pulmonary artery (which carries oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs), and the valves controlling the bloodflow of the right ventrical (tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve). These valves may be narrowed (stenosis) or missing (atresia).
- Pulmonary Incompetence (PI) [pulmonary=having to do with the lungs] the pulmonary valve is not functioning properly.
- Pulmonary Stenosis [pulmonary=having to do with the lungs, stenosis=narrowing of a passage ] a narrowing of the pulmonary artery (which carries blood from the heart to the lungs) at or near the pulmonary valve.
- Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA) [transposition=switch the order, great arteries=the aorta & the pulmonary artery] the positions of the great vessels are switched so that the aorta (which carries oxygen-rich blood to the body) is closer to the oxygen-poor blood AND the pulmonary artery (which carries oxygen-poor blood to the lungs) is closer to the oxygen-rich blood. It is usually accompanied by a hole in the wall between the ventricles (ventricular septal defect or VSD).
- Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) [septum=wall between the chambers of the heart, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] – holes in the inner walls of the heart allowing extra blood flow between the two lower chambers of the heart (ventricles). This causes the oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood to mix before leaving the heart.
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