1. non-centered Aorta [aorta=main vessel carrying oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body] the aortic arch is located more towards the patient’s left side than in a normal heart.
  2. Aortic Valve  Stenosis [aortic=the main artery leaving the heart, stenosis=narrowing of a passage ]–a narrowing of the aortic artery (which carries blood from the heart to every organ except the lungs) at or near the aortic valve.
  3. Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) [septum=wall between the chambers of the heart, atriums=top chambers of the heart] – holes in the inner walls of the heart allowing extra blood flow between the two upper chambers of the heart (atria).
  4. Unbalanced Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD) [septum=wall between the chambers of the heart, atriums=top chambers of the heart, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] – holes in the inner walls of the heart allowing extra blood flow between the atriums and the ventricles. This lets too much blood flow to the lungs and overworks the heart.
  5. Coarctation of the Aorta (CoA) – [coarctation=narrowing] – a narrowing of the aorta. This decreases blood flow to the body and increases pressures in the heart.
  6. Dextrocardia [dextro=on the right side]-the heart is reversed and in the right side of the chest (instead of the left). The lower tip of the heart also points to the right (instead of the left).
  7. Double Inlet Left Ventricle (DILV) [intlet=passage for entrance, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] – both valves  (tricuspid & mitral) controlling blood flow out of the upper chambers of the heart lead into the left ventricle. The right ventricle is very small or missing. (Normally blood from the right atrium flows through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and blood from the left atrium flows through the mitral valve into the left ventricle).
  8. Double Outlet Right Ventricle (DORV) [outlet=passage for exit, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] – both vessels (aorta & pulmonary artery) carrying blood away from the heart come out of the right ventricle. (Normally the aorta carries oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle and the pulmonary artery carries oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle).
  9. Hepatic Vein (HV) [hepatic=of the liver, vein=blood vessel] – the blood vessel carrying oxygen-depleted blood from the liver back to the heart. It is located below the heart.
  10. Ventricular Hypertrophy [ventricles=lower chambers of the heart, hyper=excessive, trophy=condition of growth] thickening of the ventricular walls because the heart is working too hard.
  11. Hypoplastic Right Ventricle (HRV) [hypo=under, plasia=formation or development, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] The right ventricle is under developed. It is too small. This means the heart will have to work harder and won’t last as long. Sometimes the valves entering or leaving the right ventricle are also too small. When present WITH dextrocardia, the right ventricle pumps oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body.
  12. Hypoplastic Right Heart Syndrome (HRHS):  the right side of the heart is underdeveloped–including the right ventricle, the pulmonary artery (which carries oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs), and the valves controling the bloodflow of the right ventrical (tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve). These valves may be narrowed (stenosis) or missing (atresia).
  13. Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS):  the left side of the heart is underdeveloped–including the left ventricle, the aorta (which carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body), and the valves controling the bloodflow of the left ventrical (mitral valve, aortic valve). Excess pressure in the heart leads to an atrial septal defect and a patent ductus arteriosus.
  14. leaky Mitral Valve (MV) the valve that controls blood flow between the left atrium and the left ventricle in the heart is leaking.
  15. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) [patent=open, ductus=duct, arteriosus=artery] – an extra passageway between the pulmonary artery (carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs) and the aorta (carrying oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body).  The ductus arteriosus is open in a fetus.  This allows extra bloodflow in the forming baby while it’s getting oxygen from Mom instead of its own lungs.  The PDA normally closes around 10 days after birth.
  16. (PFO) Patent Foramen Ovale [patent=open, foramen=opening] – a hole between the two top chambers of the heart that is covered by a flap.  A cough, sneeze, or strain can cause this flap to open-–letting blood flow where it shouldn’t.
  17. Hypoplastic Right Pulmonary  Artery [hypo=under, plasia=formation or development, pulmonary=having to do with the lungs] – the right branch of the pulmonary artery (which carries blood from the heart to the right lung) is under developed; too small.
  18. Pulmonary Atresia [pulmonary=having to do with the lungs, atresia=without openings] a complete blockage of the pulmonary artery (which carries blood from the heart to the lungs) caused by a missing or fused-shut pulmonary valve.
  19. Pulmonary  Stenosis [pulmonary=having to do with the lungs, stenosis=narrowing of a passage, ] – a narrowing of the pulmonary artery (which carries blood from the heart to the lungs) at or near the pulmonary valve.
  20. Pulmonary Vein stenosis (PVS) [pulmonary=having to do with the lungs, vein=blood vessel, stenosis=narrowing of a passage] – a narrowing or obstruction in one or more of the pulmonary veins (which carry oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the heart).
  21. hypoplastic Right Aortic Arch (RAA) [hypo=under, plasia=development or growth, aorta=main vessel carrying oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body] the part of the aorta that leaves the heart, arches to the owner’s right-side , and then turns downward.  (In a normal heart, the aorta arches to the left.) In this case, the aorta is narrow due to under development so most of the blood flowing from the heart to the body comes through the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA).
  22. Stent – a small mesh tube inserted into a previously blocked or narrowed blood vessel to help keep it open.
  23. cardiac Total Anomalous Pulmonary Vein Return (c-TAPVR) [cardiac=of the heart, anomalous=not normal, pulmonary=having to do with the lungs, vein=blood vessel, return=come back] – a structural defect where the pulmonary veins (which normally carry oxygen-rich blood from the lungs back to the left atrium of the heart) do not connect individually to the left atrium. Instead, the pulmonary veins connect to each other behind the heart and then connect to the atrium as one blood vessel.
  24. Infracardiac Total Anomalous Pulmonary Vein Return (TAPVR) [infra=below, cardiac=of the heart, anomalous=not normal, pulmonary=having to do with the lungs, vein=blood vessel, return=come back] – a structural defect where the pulmonary veins (which normally carry oxygen-rich blood from the lungs back to the left atrium of the heart) do not connect to the left atrium at all. Instead, the pulmonary veins connect to the Hepatic Vein (which brings oxygen-depleted blood from the liver back to the right atrium of the heart).  An ASD is the only source of blood for the left side of the heart (which normally supplies oxygen-rich blood to the body).  This causes oxygen-rich and oxygen-depleted blood to mix before being pumped out to the body.  TAPVR often presents with pulmonary vein stenosis.
  25. supracardiac Total Anomalous Pulmonary Vein Return (TAPVR) [supra=above, cardiac=of the heart, anomalous=not normal, pulmonary=having to do with the lungs, vein=blood vessel, return=come back] – a structural defect where the pulmonary veins (which normally carry oxygen-rich blood from the lungs back to the left atrium of the heart) do not connect to the left atrium at all. Instead, the pulmonary veins connect to the innominate Vein (which brings oxygen-depleted blood from the head back to the superior venta cava and then into the right atrium of the heart).  An ASD is the only source of blood for the left side of the heart (which normally supplies oxygen-rich blood to the body).  This causes oxygen-rich and oxygen-depleted blood to mix before being pumped out to the body.
  26. Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA) [transposition=switch the order, great arteries=the aorta & the pulmonary artery] – the positions of the great vessels are switched so that the aorta (which carries oxygen-rich blood to the body) is closer to the oxygen-poor blood AND the pulmonary artery (which carries oxygen-poor blood to the lungs) is closer to the oxygen-rich blood.  It is usually accompanied by a hole in the wall between the ventricles (ventricular septal defect or VSD).
  27. Truncus Arteriosus (TA) [trunk=the main stem, arteriosus=artery] – When the heart is forming, the artery trunk splits into the pulmonary artery and the aorta.  In Truncus Arteriosus, the Pulmonary Artery and Aorta do NOT fully split from each other.  This results in a common valve and common path leaving the heart.  [Type I: the Pulmonary Artery branches off from the common trunk BEFORE splitting to go to the right and left lungs.]
  28. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) [septum=wall between the chambers of the heart, ventricles=lower chambers of the heart] – holes in the inner walls of the heart allowing extra blood flow between the two lower chambers of the heart (ventricles). This causes the oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood to mix before leaving the heart.

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